The motivation for running AI is to automate tasks that I’d be doing normally at scale. Creating “agents” requires a bit of fine-tuning for my specific use-cases. I am learning as I go. This page currently serves as a brain dump while I was first thinking about this stuff.

Finding info on fine-tuning is a bit of a mess. Each model has their own flavor for input. Often you’ll just have to Google around to find the right format or a Python script that does it for you.

Local Text Generation

If you’re like me, you want to do it locally. This is a bit more complicated, but it’s worth it if you like to tinker.


OpenAI has been the easiest in my experience for fine-tuning. You can start with just 10 samples in your .jsonl and you can get noticeable results.

OpenAI only charges you for the training time and the calls thereafter. If you’re using it for a small project, you can get away with just a few dollars tops.

Fine-Tuning with OpenAI

By going to the fine-tuning page you can upload your .jsonl file and start training. You can then copy the model ID to use in your code.

Fine-Tuning Format

The format always looks similar (in my case):

{"messages":[{"role":"system","content":"Your job is to decide which tool..."},{"role":"user","content":"Ok Billy, send that video of Peter falling on his knee"},{"role":"assistant","content":"{\"tool\": \"\", \"query\": \"Peter falling on his knee\"}"}]}
{"messages":[{"role":"system","content":"Your job is to decide which tool..."},{"role":"user","content":"Hey Billy, rock paper scissors"},{"role":"assistant","content":"{\"tool\": \"no_tool\"}"}]}

In other words:

  • system: The prompt
  • user: The input
  • assistant: The expected output
    "messages": [
            "role": "system",
            "content": "{SYSTEM_PROMPT}"
            "role": "user",
            "content": "{USER_INPUT}"
            "role": "assistant",
            "content": "{EXPECTED_OUTPUT}"

When working with open models, this format is different, but JSONL is still popular. There are libraries such as HF’s datasets which make working with datasets a breeze.

Fine Tuning with

On my main site, I have a page dedicated to fine-tuning with It’s a bit more complicated than OpenAI, but it has the added benefit of being able to fine-tune open-source models. This also means you can download the .safetensors and use them locally.

Fine-Tuning Use Cases


By training your LLM to produce JSON output, you can use it as an API. This is useful for almost any project. It can take arbitrary text and return a JSON object with the information you need or an action to take.

Example use cases:

  • Read financial transactions and classify them
  • Interpret voice commands
  • Read a message and extract a certain piece of information

LLM as a Chatbot

If you want to add some personality to your chatbot, this is the best way to do it. You can train your LLM to respond to certain prompts with a certain tone. You can also train it to respond to certain prompts with certain actions. More examples and more variations will make your chatbot more accurate.

LLM as a Translator

You can train an LLM to translate between two programming languages or two formats. Simple prompts can be inaccurate, but with enough examples you can get a pretty good translator. This could save you hours of work.

Experimental Use Cases


LLMs are surprisingly good at generating/reading graphs. You can store a graph with nodes & edges in JSON and have the LLM modify it on the fly. This could be useful for a home assistant, a game, and other things that might branch out.

Using a graph removes a lot of the limitations of a simple input/output queue.

  "nodes": {
    "1": {
      "action": "input.text",
      "data": "Post a tweet about the weather in San Francisco"
    "2": {
      "action": "data.wolfram_alpha",
    "3": {
      "action": "confirm.edit",
    "4": {
      "action": "output.tweet",
  "edges": [
    { "from": "1", "to": "2" },
    { "from": "2", "to": "3" },
    { "from": "3", "to": "4" }